位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人

一、George Washington

第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化

Race is a shapeshifting adversary: what seems self-evident takes
training to see, and twists under political pressure

乔治·华盛顿:用印第安人的人皮可以制作出优质长统靴

VOICE ONE:

We think we know what race is. When the United States Census Bureau says
that the country will be majority non-white by 2044, that seems like a
simple enough statement. But race has always been a weaselly thing.

In 1779, George Washington instructed Major General John Sullivan
toattack Iroquois people. Washington stated, “lay waste all the
settlementsaround…that the country may not be merely overrun, but
destroyed”. Inthe course of the carnage and annihilation of Indian
people, Washington alsoinstructed his general not “listen to any
overture of peace before thetotal ruin of their settlements is
effected”. (Stannard, David E. AMERICANHOLOCAUST. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1992. pp. 118-121.)

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

Today my students, including Black and Latino students, regularly ask me
why Asians (supposedly) ‘assimilate’ with whites more quickly than
Blacks and Latinos. Strangely, in the 1920s, the US Supreme Court denied
Asians citizenship on the basis that they could never assimilate;
fast-forward to today, and Asian immigrants are held up as exemplars of
assimilation. The fact that race is unyielding enough to shut out
someone from the national community, yet malleable enough for my
students to believe that it explains a group’s apparent assimilation,
hints at what a shapeshifting adversary race is. Race is incredibly
tenacious and unforgiving, a source of grave inequality and injustice.
Yet over time, racial categories evolve and shift. 

In 1783, Washington‘s anti-Indian sentiments were apparent in
hiscomparisons of Indians with wolves: “Both being beast of prey, tho‘
theydiffer in shape”, he said. George Washington‘s policies of
exterminationwere realized in his troops behaviors following a defeat.
Troops would skin thebodies of Iroquois “from the hips downward to make
boot tops orleggings”. Indians who survived the attacks later re-named
the nation‘sfirst president as “Town Destroyer”. Approximately 28 of 30
Senecatowns had been destroyed within a five year period.

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。VOICE TWO:

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。To really grasp race, we must accept a double paradox. The first one is
a truism of antiracist educators: we can see race, but it’s not real.
The second is stranger: race has real consequences, but we can’t see it
with the naked eye. Race is a power relationship; racial categories are
not about interesting cultural or physical differences, but about
putting other people into groups in order to dominate, exploit and
attack them. Fundamentally, race makes power visible by assigning it to
physical bodies. The evidence of race right before our eyes is not a
visual trace of a physical reality, but a by-product of social
perceptions, in which we are trained to see certain features as salient
or significant. Race does not exist as a matter of biological fact, but
only as a consequence of a process of racialisation.

1779年,乔治华盛顿指示JohnSullivan少将攻打Iroquois人民时说:假如将“垃圾”放到所有定居点附近,…..那么整个国家将不仅仅是泛滥成灾,而是被摧毁了。在屠杀灭绝印第安人过程中,华盛顿还指示他的将军说:在所有印第安人居留地被有效摧毁前不要听取任何和平的建议”

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.

Occasionally there are historical moments when the creation of race and
its political meaning get spelled out explicitly. The US Constitution
divided people into white, Black or Indian, which were meant to stand in
for power categories: those eligible for citizenship, those subjected to
brutal enslavement, and those targeted for genocide. In the first
census, each resident counted as one person, each slave as three-fifths
a person, and each Indian was not counted at all.

在1783年,华盛顿在把印第安人和狼的相互比较中,他这种反印第安人情绪遗漏无疑:“两者都是掠食的野兽,仅仅在形状上不同”,他说。华盛顿的灭绝政策在他的部队又一次击败了印第安人以后得以实施。军士们从Iroquois人的死尸上剥皮,“从臀部往下剥皮,这样可以制作出高的或可以并腿而长的长统靴来。”在那场袭击后辛存的印第安人将美国第一总统改名为“小城摧毁者”。大概30个Senca人的城镇中有28个在一个5年时间内被摧毁。

VOICE ONE:

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。But racialisation is often more insidious. It means that we see things
that don’t exist, and fail to recognise things that do. The most
powerful racial category is often invisible: whiteness. The benefit of
being in power is that whites can imagine that they are the norm and
that only other people have race. An early US census instructed people
to leave the race section blank if they were white, and indicate only if
someone were something else (‘B’ for Black, ‘M’ for Mulatto). Whiteness
was literally unmarked.

二、Thomas Jefferson
托马斯·杰弗逊(就是那位声称“天赋人权”——人人生而平等的民主领袖):美国必须灭绝印第安人

Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

A brief aside on the politics of typography, in case you’re wondering:
throughout this article I leave ‘white’ as is, but I capitalise ‘Black’,
as well as ‘Indian’ and ‘Irish’. Why? Well, as the writer and activist
W E B DuBois said in the early 20th century, during the decades-long
campaign to capitalise ‘Negro’: ‘I believe that 8 million Americans are
entitled to a capital letter.’ I could argue that I don’t capitalise
white because ‘white’ rarely rises to the level of a cultural
identification – but the real reason I don’t is because race is never
fair, so it’s fitting for inequality be written into the words we use
for races.

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。In 1807, Thomas Jefferson instructed his War Department that, shouldany
Indians resist against America stealing Indian lands, the Indian
resistancemust be met with “the hatchet”. Jefferson continued,
“And…ifever we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe,
” he wrote,”we will never lay it down till that tribe is exterminated,
or is drivenbeyond the Mississippi.” Jefferson, the slave owner,
continued, “inwar, they will kill some of us; we shall destroy all of
them”.

科学家认为,美洲的土著居民是数千年前在最后一个冰河时代来到美洲大陆的。考古学家从寒冷的北部地区到南美洲的最南端,都找到过他们的足迹。

Putting whiteness under inspection shows how powerful race is, despite
the instability of racial categories. For decades, ‘whiteness’ was an
explicit standard for citizenship. (Blacks could technically be
citizens, but enjoyed none of the legal benefits. Asians born outside
the US were prohibited from becoming citizens until the mid-20th
century.) Eligibility for citizenship – painted as whiteness – has
remained a category since its inscription in the Constitution, but those
eligible for membership in that group have changed. Groups such as
Germans, Irish, Italians and Jews were popularly defined as non-citizens
and non-white when they first arrived, and then became white. What we
see as white today is not the same as it was 100 years ago.

In 1812, Jefferson said that American was obliged to push thebackward
Indians “with the beasts of the forests into the StonyMountains”. One
year later Jefferson continued anti-Indian statements byadding that
America must “pursue [the Indians] to extermination, or drivethem to
new seats beyond our reach”.

As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

Thomas Nast’s cartoons are notorious in this regard. His caricatures of
Irishmen and Blacks are particularly shocking because they are a type we
no longer see today. Working-class Irishmen are represented as
chimpanzees in crumpled top hats and curled-up shoes. Their faces have a
large dome-shaped upper lip surrounded by bushy sideburns: 

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。1807年,托马斯杰弗逊指示他的战争部门,说道,如果印第安人反抗美国人去窃取他们的土地,那么,印第安人的肯定会用“短柄斧头”来反抗,杰弗逊继续道,“如果我们约束自己去举斧迎向这些部落,那么在这些部落灭绝之前我们将不会安静地躺下,或者被驱赶出密西西比河以外”,杰弗逊,这个奴隶主,继续道:“在战争中,他们会杀死我们中的某些人,但我们会杀死他们全部!”

居住在不同地区的土著居民,创造了自己独特的语言、文化和宗教。每个土著部落的故事,都是美洲历史的重要组成部分,但是最为后人认可的,还是那些在今天的美国中部定居的土著部落。

At times, Nast partnered the Irishman with an equally offensive image of
a Black American, with big ‘Sambo’-style lips, perhaps a large rump and
clunky bare feet. Today, few Americans have an image in their minds of
what an Irish American should look like. Unless, perhaps, they meet a
man named O’Connor with red hair, Americans today rarely think to
themselves: ‘Of course! He looks Irish.’

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。在1812年,杰弗逊说美国人被迫赶退印第安人,“将森林野兽赶入乱石山”一年后,杰弗逊继续他的反印第安人言论,美国人必须“追求灭绝印第安人或者将他们驱赶到我们不去的地方”

VOICE TWO:

Americans can’t see German, Irish or French, but they could. Not all
white people look the same

三、Abraham Lincoln 亚伯拉罕·林肯:每十分钟屠杀一名印第安人的美国总统

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

But Nast was not only sketching nasty caricatures of Irishmen; he was
doing so in a way that would appear believable to his audience. In a
similar example of invisible ethnicity, 15 per cent of Americans in
2014 reported German
heritage. This ethnic group is widespread and numerous. So let me pose a
simple question: what do German Americans look like? One in seven
Americans are German American; how many of the German Americans you meet
have you identified that way? Even more so than later immigrant groups
such as Italian, Irish or Jewish, German is invisible.

In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the ????ution, byhanging, of
38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankato, Minnesota. Most of those????uted
were holy men or political leaders of their camps. None of them
wereresponsible for committing the crimes they were accused of. Coined
as theLargest Mass ????ution in U.S. History. (Brown, Dee. BURY MY HEART
AT WOUNDEDKNEE. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1970. pp. 59-61)

1804年,刘易斯和克拉克率领的探险队到了太平洋。他们是见到大平原地区土著部落的第一批受过教育的美国人,也是土著人第一次见到的白人。

Americans can’t see German, Irish or French, but they 位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。could. It’s not
the case that all white people look the same. My parents are both of
predominantly Irish heritage. One summer, my family was travelling and
had a layover in Ireland long enough for us to see the city of Dublin
for the first time. We had not left the airport before my seven-year-old
son said what I was already thinking: ‘Everybody here looks like grandma
and grandpa位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。!’ My family, according to my seven-year-old, looked like
people from Ireland.

位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。“It is my purpose to utterly exterminate the Sioux. They are to

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

A few years later, I was to meet a French colleague at a busy Paris
train station at rush hour, but neither of us knew what the other one
looked like, and there were hundreds of people. I tried to guess which
of the women entering, exiting, waiting, smoking, texting and milling
about was the person I was to meet, but to no avail. Then I turned, and
from a block away, through a crowd of hundreds, a woman waved directly
at me. She had picked 位居在区别地段的本地人市民,美利哥必需杜绝印第安人。me out. I had been vaguely aware, before then,
that no matter how familiar I got with Paris, I stood out on the subway:
I might feel perfectly French riding the train, reading the
advertisements in French and understanding the conductor, but when I got
home and looked in the mirror, I knew my face was different from the
diverse visages I saw in public.

be treated as maniacs or wild beasts”

Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

Later I asked my colleague, and she said she knew I wasn’t French. How
so? I asked. She scrutinised me. ‘La mâchoire.’ It was your jaw, she
said, with a satisfied smile. Until that day, I never knew there was
such a thing as an Irish chin, but I had one. And no doubt, if Nast ever
met my earliest American ancestors on the street, he’d know they looked
Irish too. We don’t see Irish anymore, we don’t recognise it, we no
longer caricature it. But we could.

《into the west》:

刘易斯和克拉克等人到达落基山东侧的时候,大约六十个肖肖尼土著居民正骑马向他们走来。他们生动地记载了当时的情景。

The racial category of Asian is just as unstable and entangled with
political power as whiteness is. The US census started counting
‘Chinese’ back in 1870 (with no other category for people from the
continent of Asia). Around the same time, the census started counting a
similarly excluded group, American Indians, which the Constitution had
designated as ripe for expropriation. Tellingly, Indian racial
categories were unstable from the start: after not being counted at all,
Indians were then included but tallied in the ‘white’ column – except in
areas where there were large numbers of Indians, where they became their
own category.

None of the Indians tried were given any semblance of adefense.Their
trials lasted approximately 10 minutes each. All adult males were found
guilty of murder andsentenced to death with the only evidence against
them being they had been present during a”war”which they themselves had
declared against the government.

VOICE ONE:

For Asians, as Paul Schor points out in his fascinating
history Counting
Americans
 (2017),
the US government counted Chinese and Japanese but still left the rest
of Asia blank, adding ‘Filipino, Hindu, and Korean’ in the 20th century.
For something so clearly created by people, lists of racial groups are
never comprehensive and typically ill-defined. Looking across the
Eurasian continent, the US government today is still vague about where
white ends and Asian begins. People in the US who were born east of
Greece and west of Thailand are often unsure which boxes to check in the
US census every 10 years. Like storm-borne waves or wind-blown sand
dunes, race is a daunting obstacle that shifts and changes.

1862年,林肯总统下令绞死了38个明尼苏达曼卡托地区的达可它人苏语部落的38个囚犯。这些被绞死的人大部分都是他们营地的神职人员和政治领袖。他们之中没有人犯过他们所被控告的罪行,这铸造了美国历史上最大规模的死刑.

The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
the end.

During the Second World War, China was a US ally, while Japan was an
enemy. The US military decided it necessary to identify racial
differences between the Chinese and the Japanese. In a series of cartoon
illustrations, they tried to educate American soldiers about what to
look for – what to see – in order to distinguish a Japanese solider
who might be trying to blend in among a Chinese population.

“此战的目标是彻底灭绝苏部落。他们将被象野兽一样对待。”(林肯对即将出征剿杀印第安人的美国陆军中将John
Pope交待他的作战目标)

我们的第一反应是,这些人已经做好了战斗的准备。他们都佩有弓箭,还有些人拿着顶端插着尖刀的杆子。

Today, the ‘How to Spot a Jap’ leaflets are an offensive novelty – used
either to illustrate the history of racist stereotyping or sold on
postcards as ironic curiosities. But they can also be examined in
another way. In The Civilizing Process (1978), the sociological
theorist Norbert Elias studied books on manners from the European
Renaissance to understand the process of the creation of what he
called habitus. Manners that we see as utterly natural and inevitable
today, like not blowing one’s nose at the table, or eating off the
serving spoon, or belching or farting in public, are, in fact, socially
constructed and learned behaviours.

被林肯下令屠杀的39名印第安人,没有一个经过法庭辩论程序,每十分钟判一个,比希特勒更利索。尤其令人发指的是,该部落的所有成人都被定了死罪,唯一的证据是他们反对政府,而且战争发生时,他们在场。

They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.

At the historical moment at which they were introduced, books of manners
were required to teach what is today utterly obvious to adults. They
make for incredible reading. In his chapter ‘On Blowing One’s Nose’, for
instance, Elias quotes a ‘precept for gentlemen’ that matter-of-factly
explains: ‘When you blow your nose or cough, turn round so that nothing
falls on the table.’ ‘Do not blow your nose with the same hand that you
use to hold the meat.’ ‘It is unseemly to blow your nose into the
tablecloth.’ Some of the recommendations are as poetic as they are
graphic: ‘Nor is it seemly, after wiping your nose, to spread out your
handkerchief and peer into it as if pearls and rubies might have fallen
out of your head.’ It appears that actions that seem completely natural
had to be taught explicitly.

四、Theodore Roosevelt 西奥多·罗斯福:只有死掉的印第安人才是好的

他们骑得飞快,有些马背上好像并没有人,仔细看才会发现,骑手都贴在马肚子上,或是挂在马脖子下面,用马的身体做掩护。

Genetic inheritance isn’t what matters. What we literally see is
shaped by politics

The fourth face you see on that “Stony Mountain” isAmerica‘s first
twentieth century president, alleged American hero, and Nobelpeace prize
recipient, Theodore Roosevelt. This Indian fighter firmly graspedthe
notion of Manifest Destiny saying that America‘s extermination of
theIndians and thefts our their lands “was ultimately beneficial as it
wasinevitable”. Roosevelt once said, “I don‘t go so far as to think
thatthe only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of
ten are, andI shouldn‘t like to inquire too closely into the case of the
tenth”.

The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

The ‘How to Spot a Jap’ flyers were printed to serve much the same
function as the manners books that Elias studied. They tried to create
and implant a racial habitus that distinguished the Japanese from the
Chinese. That Second World War poster looks offensive today – crude,
reductionist, insulting – and it is. We think that recognising such
ridiculousness makes us less racist than the people who made it. It
doesn’t. It merely means that we have different racial categories than
in 1942.

在乱石山上你看到的第四张脸孔是美国20世纪的第一任总统,所谓的美国英雄和诺贝尔和平奖得主,西奥多·罗斯福.
印第安斗士已经牢牢地掌握了他们命运的话语权:美国人对印第安人采取种族灭绝而且偷走了印第安人的土地。罗斯福说:“
这是不可避免而且最终有利的,我不想走得太远去说只有死掉的印第安人才是好的,但是我相信10个好印第安人有9个是死了的,而且我也不愿意去仔细查询第10个死亡的案情。

这些马的身上画着五颜六色的图案,后来我们才知道,每个图案有不同的意思,对马的主人有特殊的意义。

Chinese and Japanese people look no more ‘similar’ or ‘different’ from
one another than Irish Americans do from French Americans. That doesn’t
mean that there aren’t differences as a matter of statistical
distribution, but only that what we think we know about race has to be
learned, and that what people ‘know’ and ‘see’ as salient and obvious
changes over time. Most Americans cannot distinguish a white American of
Irish origin versus one of French origin walking down the street, yet
they hardly need pamphlets explaining what to look for to tell if
someone is white or Black. If the distinction between Japanese and
Chinese had remained as significant in the US today as it was to US
soldiers during the Second World War, many people would see it as
similarly self-evident.

The apathy displayed by these founding fathers symbolize
thedemoralization related to racial superiority. Scholars point toward
this racialpolarization as evidence of the existence of Eugenics.

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and
rider.

On-the-street racial distinctions don’t have to be ‘perfect’. People
often don’t recognise the author Malcolm Gladwell as Black, although he
is; other times whites are mistaken for Blacks. For the purposes of
making or unmaking a racial difference, genetic inheritance isn’t what
matters. What we literally see is shaped by politics. The same two
groups can be visibly different racially or indistinguishable
racially, depending on the political context and power relations by
which they’re categorised.

Eugenics is a new term for an old phenomena which asserts thatIndian
people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race
ofpeople. Jefferson‘s suggestion to pursue the Indians to extermination
fits wellinto the eugenistic vision. In David Stannard‘s study American
Holocaust, hewrites: “had these same words been enunciated by a German
leader in 1939,and directed at European Jews, they would be engraved in
modern memory. Sincethey were uttered by one of America‘s founding
fathers, however…theyconveniently have become lost to most historians
in their insistent celebrationof Jefferson‘s wisdom and humanity.”
Roosevelt feared that American upperclasses were being replaced by the
“unrestricted breeding” ofinferior racial stocks, the “utterly
shiftless”, and the”worthless”

比如说,其中一个人是战斗总指挥,另一个在战斗中杀死过敌人,其中一种图案能保护马匹和骑手的安全。

Francis Galton was a pioneer in modern statistics. But he was also a
eugenicist. Among other things, Galton became notorious for photos in
the late 19th century that purported to reveal the ‘Jewish type’. At the
time, people believed that Irish, Jewish, Japanese, Chinese or German
denoted races. When Jews were a race, people thought that they could
tell who was Jewish by looking at them. Today, many Jewish people recoil
at the idea that there is a Jewish ‘race’, and find the suggestion that
there is a Jewish ‘look’ inherently racist. At various times, then, the
US Army, Thomas Nast and the father of the statistical method of
regression analysis all believed that there were visually distinct and
observable races that many Americans today would be generally unable to
identify – certainly not with the level of certainty they’d feel with
respect to racial categories such as Caucasian, African American, Latino
or Asian.

这些美国国父们所表现出来的冷漠象征了与种族优越感相联系的道德败坏。学者们也趋向这些种族分化作为优生论存在的证据。

VOICE TWO:

I suspect that a visitor from a planet without race would have a very
difficult time slotting anyone on Earth into the racial categories we
use today. If they were asked to group people visually, there is no
statistical possibility that they’d use the same set of arbitrary boxes,
and even if these categories were described for them in detail, they
would probably not sort actual people in the same way as the modern US
does.

优生论是一个对古老现象的新术语,它断言印第安人应该被灭绝因为他们是次等民族。主张“天赋人权”的杰弗逊认为追求印第安人灭绝很符合优生论。在David
Stannard的美国屠杀历史研究中,他写道:“假如这些同样的词汇被德国领袖在1939年清晰地阐述并用于欧洲犹太人身上,那么它就会永远镌刻与人类的现代记忆中。但是既然他们是由一个美国国父发出的,那么,这些词汇在大部分历史学家坚持不懈地庆祝杰弗逊的智慧和人道中就很方便地失去了。”罗斯福害怕美国上流阶层正被“无限制繁衍的次等种族群体”、那些“完全的无能者”、那些“没有丝毫价值的人”所代替。

As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

That we think we see race naturally, when in fact it’s socially
constructed, is the third eye through which we see the world. The census
prediction that the US will be majority minority is less a conclusion
than a question: ‘What future will immigrants of colour build in the
US?’ The answer involves not just changes that transpire between one
group and another, but changes to the membership of those groups and
their symbolic meaning. In response to demographic shifts, the very
boundaries of whiteness are likely to shift, as indeed they’ve done
before.

这些肖肖尼骑手走近后,看到我们不象要打仗的样子,于是放慢了步伐,但还是十分小心。刘易斯举起一只手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的头领也做出同样的手势,做出回答。双方继续靠拢。

In the worst case, a majority non-white US could take its cue from
apartheid-era South Africa

The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a
friend.

In The History of White People (2011), Nell Irvin Painter argues
that the idea of ‘whiteness’ has expanded several times to include more
and more people. First came the Irish and previously ‘suspect’
non-Protestants, who ‘gained’ whiteness in the late 1800s. The next
great expansion of whiteness came with the social upheaval and physical
relocation of both servicemen and migrating industrial workers during
the Second World War. In the war economy, groups including Italians,
Jews and Mexicans became upwardly mobile, and sought to present
themselves in allegiance with Anglo-Saxon beauty ideals (the only Jewish
Miss America was crowned in 1945) – all of which helped to recast them
as ‘white’. The narrative of white inclusivity continued from the
Roosevelt era into the postwar period. Finally, intermarriage eventually
dissolved previous notions of racial boundaries. Few white Americans
could claim a single national race (Swedish, German, French) with any
confidence, and whiteness could no longer sustain the idea of
nation-based races. For Painter, this most recent change closed the book
on any scientific basis for race, and helped to make the US a country
where people are much more mixed, across old racial boundaries, than
ever before.

肖肖尼人穿着用兽皮做的衣服,大多是鹿皮或水牛皮。他们的衬衣有不同的图案,也有不同的意思,可以显示某个人参加过战斗、多次参加捕获马匹的突袭行动,或是救过朋友的性命。

Perhaps this mixing means that the US is finally warming to multiracial
identity. But if that is indeed happening, it’s not because of
demographics, but because of the tireless efforts of activists who
continue to fight racism and racial segregation. Movements for racial
justice succeed not simply because of demographic shifts but because
racial privileges cannot justify themselves in the face of an organised
alternative. Many countries have been minority white yet held on to
whiteness; to the extent that whiteness meant citizenship, these were
states that were ruled by a minority and oversaw the hyper-exploitation
of a much larger part of the country. In the worst case, a majority
non-white US could take its cue from apartheid-era South Africa, or
Brazil, or Guatemala, where a small light-skinned group has enjoyed
privileges at the expense of many more who are excluded.

VOICE ONE:

The path to justice therefore involves attacking the prerogative to
categorise people in order to justify their exploitation or
colonisation. That means acknowledging and challenging the basis of
racial categories. It’s not about a token embrace of multicultural
colour: it’s about power, and power is far too wily for us to expect it
to stand still and be overtaken by demographic change. We need to
confront the force of racial privilege no matter who inhabits the
privileged caste at any given moment. It’s no good imagining that innate
human diversity will render the system powerless.

Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.

The US shift towards majority non-whiteness is not destiny, but it is an
opportunity. Painter notes that when external conditions change, it
becomes possible to imagine different racial hierarchies. The
geographical and social remixing of the Second World War cooked down the
diverse European identities in the US into a single racial category of
‘white’. Likewise, Asian immigrants occupied one role when Asian
immigration was largely working class, West Coast, limited in numbers,
and male, as it was at the end of the 19th century. But the racial
constraints on Asian Americans shifted when immigration law came to
favour professionals, and brought middle- and working-class people,
women and men, in larger numbers than before to more US cities.

刘易斯冲这些人笑笑,再次做出和平的手势,肖肖尼人也做出同样的手势。刘易斯和肖肖尼头领语言不通,但是可以通过手势进行交流。

Using shifting social situations to upend racial hierarchies is not just
about challenging racism, but race itself. This doesn’t mean the
disingenuous denial of race when racism still very much exists, but a
collective challenge to its right to determine our lives. The Black
Lives Matter movement seeks to take away the police’s prerogative to use
violence against African Americans with no legal sanctions; success
would undermine an important means of maintaining racial segregation and
inequality. What would it mean, once and for all, to bury the shameful,
misplaced pride some white people have for the South’s role in the Civil
War, and acknowledge instead the irredeemable mistakes of their
forefathers? What would it mean to frankly acknowledge each nation’s
racial past, and think about what reparations would set us on a path to
greater prosperity? Race is neither inevitable nor something we can wish
away. Instead, we must take advantage of the instability in what we
perceive, and redistribute the power that perpetuates race.

VOICE TWO:

Race never stays still. As the sociologist Richard Alba pointed out
in The Washington Post last month, the prediction that the US will be
majority non-white by 2044 relies on a definition of race that is
static, and doesn’t acknowledge the surprising reality that people’s
races change. Nearly 10
million people
listed their racial identification differently on the 2010 census than
they had in 2000. Alba criticises the census for ‘binary thinking’ which
counts anyone with Hispanic heritage as Hispanic, and through a quirk in
the census questions, effectively ignores any other racial identity that
they could claim. ‘[A] majority-minority society should be seen as a
hypothesis, not a foreordained result,’ Alba wrote, of the 2044 claim.
This is important, because when it comes to fighting racism, we can’t
rely on demographic shifts to do the work for us. Instead, if we
recognise that race looks solid but is shifting, we can find additional
ways to destabilise the structures of racial inequality.

One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.

Getting rid of racism requires clarity about the nature of the enemy.
The way to defeat white supremacy is to destroy it. The US will truly be
‘majority non-white’ only when white is no longer the privileged
citizenship category, when white is no more meaningful than the archaic
Octoroon or Irish. This is not to discount the anxiety about cultural
loss conjured by talk of an imagined colourblind future, but to
recognise the inextricability of racial identities and power inequality.
With work, perhaps the next expansion of whiteness will be into
oblivion.

一个年轻的肖肖尼人翻身下马,他身材高大强壮,留着长长的黑发,头发用兽皮绑着,头发后面还有一根很长的羽毛。

Gregory Smithsimon is associate professor of sociology at Brooklyn
College at the City University of New York, and the CUNY Graduate
Center.

His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.

他的胳膊上划着很多长线,每条线代表着一场战斗。但是这次跟我们的遭遇,双方并没有兵戎相见。

VOICE ONE:

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.

(我们在前一个小时的建国史话中讲到了刘易斯和克拉克的探险队第一次遇到土著部落–肖肖尼人的情景。)其实,肖肖尼人只是大平原上众多土著部落中的一个。这些部落的生活、文化和社会形态都带有大平原的特色。

The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United
States.

直到今天,大平原还是一望无际,即使是坐在时速100公里的车上,要穿越大平原也要整整两天的时间。大平原北起加拿大,南抵墨西哥,东靠密西西比河,西至落基山脉,是美国的中心地区。

There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脉,其余的地方则是一望无际的草地。

VOICE TWO:

The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
Great Plains.

草地养肥了水牛,水牛是大平原土著印第安人文化的核心要素。

The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.

水牛不仅为印第安人提供了食物,也是大平原地区大多数印第安人宗教的重要部分。

The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”

苏人印第安部落就相信,凡是生活必须品,都能从水牛的身上找到。另外一个印第安人部落把水牛称做“我的家和保护者。”

VOICE ONE:

The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.

牛背上厚厚的皮可以用来做帐篷,其他部分的皮可以做衣服和毯子,牛骨头可以做工具,水牛身上的任何地方都不会被浪费掉。

No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.

没有人知道,刘易斯遇到肖肖尼人的时候,北美大陆上到底有多少头水牛,专家估计可能有六千万到七千五百万头左右。

VOICE TWO:

Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.

另外一种动物也对大平原印第安部落的文化起到了关键作用。当时的土著印第安人把这种动物叫做大狗,其实他们说的就是马。

No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

西班牙人十六世纪来到今天的美国南部之前,北美大陆上原本没有马。土著印第安人都是徒步狩猎和行动的,长途跋涉十分辛苦,更不用说捕猎水牛了。

The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
tribe’s wealth.

马的出现彻底改变了他们的生活,给他们提供了交通和运输的方便,也让追踪和捕猎水牛变得更加简单了。有了马,印第安人就能对远方的敌人发动进攻,然后安全返回。拥有马匹的数量,一度成为衡量部落财富的标准。

VOICE ONE:

Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.

西班牙定居者大约在1609年的时候骑马到了今天美国西南部新墨西哥州的小镇圣菲。

It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

没有人知道,圣菲的土著居民是怎么得到第一匹马的,也许他们是用东西换的,也许是发动进攻抢来的。重要的是,没过多久,很多印第安部落都开始买卖和捕获马匹了。

By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.

到1750年代的时候,大平原上的所有部落都有了马,而且这些印第安人成了饲养、训练和骑马的行家。

Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.

大平原地区的印第安人,五岁学骑马,长大以后,每个年轻人都有好几匹马,分别用于工作、狩猎和作战。一个印第安勇士的成功在很大程度上要取决于他和他的坐骑的密切配合。

VOICE TWO:

George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.

卡森林是美国早期艺术家,他到过西部的很多地方,画了很多描写印第安人的作品,据他说,大平原上的印第安人是世界上最出色的骑手,印第安人把手放在马身上的一瞬间,就和马融为一体了。

VOICE ONE:

The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.

水牛和马匹对大平原地区的印第安人来说至关重要,马的出现简化了狩猎工作,让印第安人能把更多的时间用于美化生活,他们开始在衣服和马用的毯子上设计图案,即使是最常用的物品上也出现了图案设计。

VOICE TWO:

The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

白种定居者的到来,标志着美洲印第安人水牛和马匹文化的终结。定居者不希望水牛破坏他们的庄稼,于是开始宰杀水牛。到了1885年的时候,大平原地区的印第安人大多都已经被赶到了保留地上居住。

VOICE ONE:

Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
of America.

很多延续至今的部落都在设法保留自己的传统文化,他们通过艺术、音乐和服装,让对美洲历史做出过重大贡献的自己祖先的文化流传下去。

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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